Tag: Organic Chemistry

  • Epic First Cocaine Synthesis (Total Synthesis by Wilstätter)

    Epic First Cocaine Synthesis (Total Synthesis by Wilstätter)

    Did you know that while Coca Cola was getting consumers casually coked up in the late 19th century, chemistry titans were fighting an epic battle around cocaine synthesis? With a Nobel Prize on the line, the stakes were high, cocaine’s structural complexity was high… and everybody else was high too. Keep watching to learn more…

  • How to Identify Nucleophile vs Electrophile (Summary & Detailed)

    How to Identify Nucleophile vs Electrophile (Summary & Detailed)

    Ever struggle with how to identify if a group is a nucleophile vs. electrophile?If you are in a rush and don’t care about learning chemistry (bruh), the first sections got you. I recommend you try to truly understand the concept as it’s arguably the most important skill in organic chemistry. Nucleophile vs electrophile: Summary 1.…

  • TBS Protecting Group: TBS Protection & Deprotection

    TBS Protecting Group: TBS Protection & Deprotection

    The TBS protecting group protects alcohols in organic synthesis, and is deprotected with fluoride anions (e.g., TBAF) or strong acids. This commonly used, bulky silyl protecting group is very resilient, allowing for selective/ orthogonal deprotection of similar groups like TMS.For silyl ethers, bigger is better!As they have 3 different mechanisms for deprotection, they’re a nice…

  • SN2 mechanism: What the Substitution Reaction looks like

    SN2 mechanism: What the Substitution Reaction looks like

    Do you struggle to comprehend the SN2 mechanism, or the difference between SN2 vs SN1? You are not alone! All of us need models and practice to understand what the molecules look like in their 3D structure. I suggest to watch the video above – the point of animations is to see them, duh! If…

  • Fmoc Protecting Group: Fmoc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    Fmoc Protecting Group: Fmoc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The Fmoc protecting group protects amines in synthesis, and is deprotected with bases such as secondary amines like piperidine. You might not expect it, but this group is very similar to other carbamate groups (e.g., Boc, Cbz) even though it is orthogonal to them. However, remember orthogonal is a relative term… But, did you ever…

  • Cbz Protecting Group: N-Cbz Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    Cbz Protecting Group: N-Cbz Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The Cbz protecting group protects amines as less reactive carbamates in organic synthesis and is deprotected with hydrogenolysis. N-Cbz is orthogonal to numerous protecting groups as it’s stable to bases and acids. Its removal by reduction is unique but you should rediscover many common themes! What is the Cbz Protecting Group? Cbz is a benzyloxycarbonyl…

  • Boc Protecting Group: N-Boc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    Boc Protecting Group: N-Boc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The Boc protecting group protects amines as less reactive carbamates in organic synthesis, and is deprotected with acid. N-Boc is a key topic during chemistry courses. Why?It nicely exemplifies important protecting group concepts and has an interesting deprotection mechanism. What is the Boc Protecting Group? Boc stands for tert-butyloxycarbonyl and protects amines as carbamates. More…

  • PMB Protecting Group: PMB Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    PMB Protecting Group: PMB Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The PMB protecting group protects alcohols as less reactive ethers in organic synthesis, and is deprotected oxidatively or with strong acids. The study of its mechanisms and properties will also help solidify your understanding of organic chemistry concepts! What is the PMB Protecting Group? PMB is a para-methoxybenzyl group, introduced by Yonemitsu in 1982 [1]…

  • MDMA Synthesis in 3 Steps & How it could help PTSD Therapy

    MDMA Synthesis in 3 Steps & How it could help PTSD Therapy

    The MDMA synthesis is not complex from a chemistry perspective. More interestingly, recent clinical trials have indicated MDMA-assisted therapy is highly effective for people with severe PTSD. Today we will look at MDMA’s history and its chemical syntheses. We will dispel myths about MDMA’s discovery and review the first kilo-gram scale MDMA synthesis published in…

  • Simple LSD Synthesis in 7 Chemical Steps (Organic Chemistry)

    Simple LSD Synthesis in 7 Chemical Steps (Organic Chemistry)

    In a by now ancient video we discussed the history and total syntheses of lysergic acid. This is the precursor of the psychoactive drug lysergic acid diethylamide or LSD. These old-school and new-school syntheses were quite cool but they are quite lengthy, consisting of more than a dozen individual chemical steps.Well, a team of chemists recently reported…