Author: admin

  • Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry: Introduction

    Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry: Introduction

    Functional groups are the foundation of organic chemistry as they define the structure, reactivity, and properties of organic compounds. Here, we explain what functional groups are (by looking at – wait for it – fruit salad), and introduce the most common functional groups.Did you know that functional groups were at the root of dispute and…

  • Epic First Cocaine Synthesis (Total Synthesis by Wilstätter)

    Epic First Cocaine Synthesis (Total Synthesis by Wilstätter)

    Did you know that while Coca Cola was getting consumers casually coked up in the late 19th century, chemistry titans were fighting an epic battle around cocaine synthesis? With a Nobel Prize on the line, the stakes were high, cocaine’s structural complexity was high… and everybody else was high too. Keep watching to learn more…

  • How to Identify Nucleophile vs Electrophile (Summary & Detailed)

    How to Identify Nucleophile vs Electrophile (Summary & Detailed)

    Ever struggle with how to identify if a group is a nucleophile vs. electrophile?If you are in a rush and don’t care about learning chemistry (bruh), the first sections got you. I recommend you try to truly understand the concept as it’s arguably the most important skill in organic chemistry. Nucleophile vs electrophile: Summary 1.…

  • TBS Protecting Group: TBS Protection & Deprotection

    TBS Protecting Group: TBS Protection & Deprotection

    The TBS protecting group protects alcohols in organic synthesis, and is deprotected with fluoride anions (e.g., TBAF) or strong acids. This commonly used, bulky silyl protecting group is very resilient, allowing for selective/ orthogonal deprotection of similar groups like TMS.For silyl ethers, bigger is better!As they have 3 different mechanisms for deprotection, they’re a nice…

  • SN2 mechanism: What the Substitution Reaction looks like

    SN2 mechanism: What the Substitution Reaction looks like

    Do you struggle to comprehend the SN2 mechanism, or the difference between SN2 vs SN1? You are not alone! All of us need models and practice to understand what the molecules look like in their 3D structure. I suggest to watch the video above – the point of animations is to see them, duh! If…

  • Fmoc Protecting Group: Fmoc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    Fmoc Protecting Group: Fmoc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The Fmoc protecting group protects amines in synthesis, and is deprotected with bases such as secondary amines like piperidine. You might not expect it, but this group is very similar to other carbamate groups (e.g., Boc, Cbz) even though it is orthogonal to them. However, remember orthogonal is a relative term… But, have you heard…

  • Cbz Protecting Group: N-Cbz Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    Cbz Protecting Group: N-Cbz Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The Cbz protecting group protects amines as less reactive carbamates in organic synthesis and is deprotected with hydrogenolysis. N-Cbz is orthogonal to numerous protecting groups as it’s stable to bases and acids. Its removal by reduction is unique but it has similarities to other protecting groups! You can zoom and play around with this 3D…

  • Boc Protecting Group: N-Boc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    Boc Protecting Group: N-Boc Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The Boc protecting group protects amines as less reactive carbamates in organic synthesis, and is deprotected with acid. N-Boc is a key topic during chemistry courses. Why?It nicely exemplifies important protecting group concepts and has an interesting deprotection mechanism. You can zoom and play around with this 3D model of the Boc protecting group! What…

  • PMB Protecting Group: PMB Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    PMB Protecting Group: PMB Protection & Deprotection Mechanism

    The PMB protecting group protects alcohols as less reactive ethers in organic synthesis, and is deprotected oxidatively or with strong acids. The study of its mechanisms and properties will improve your understanding of organic chemistry concepts! You can zoom and play around with this 3D model of the PMB protecting group! What is the PMB…

  • MDMA Synthesis in 3 Steps & How it could help PTSD Therapy

    MDMA Synthesis in 3 Steps & How it could help PTSD Therapy

    The MDMA synthesis is not complex from a chemistry perspective. More interestingly, recent clinical trials have indicated MDMA-assisted therapy is highly effective for people with severe PTSD. Today we will look at MDMA’s history and its chemical syntheses. We will dispel myths about MDMA’s discovery and review the first kilo-gram scale MDMA synthesis published in…